Boeing

International Space Station

International Space Station

The International Space Station’s role as a scientific laboratory and test bed for deep-space technology is crucial to humanity’s ability to improve life on Earth while pursuing opportunities in space.

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我的感覺是百花齊放、百家爭鳴確是數十年的教育事業,我們既要耐性等待,又要友好斗爭;自己也要時時刻刻求進步,所謂自我改造,教條主義官僚主義,我認為主要有下列幾個原因︰一是階級斗爭太劇烈了,老干部經過了數十年殘酷內戰與革命,到今日已是中年以上,生理上即已到了衰退階段;再加多數人身上帶著病,精神更不充沛,求知與學習的勁頭自然不足了。二是階級斗爭時敵人就在面前,不積極學習戰斗就得送命,個人與集體的安全利害緊接在一起;革命成功了,敵人遠了,美帝與原子彈等等,近乎抽象的威脅,故不大肯積極學習社會主義建設的門道。三是革命成功,多少給老干部一些自滿情緒,自命力勞苦功高,對新事物當然不大願意屈尊去體會。四是社會發展得快,每天有多少事需要立刻決定,既沒有好好學習,只有簡單化,以教條主義官僚主義應付。這四點是造成官僚、主觀、教條的重要因素。否則,毛主席說過“我們搞階級斗爭,並沒先學好一套再來,而是邊學邊斗爭的”;為什麼建設社會主義就不能邊學邊建設呢?反過來,我親眼見過中級干部從解放軍復員而做園藝工作,四年功夫已成了出色的專家。佛子嶺水庫的總指揮也是復員軍人出身,遇到工程師們各執一見,相持下下時,他出來憑馬列主義和他專業的學習,下的結論,每次都很正確。可見只要年富力強,只要有自信,有毅力,死不服氣的去學技術,外行變為內行也不是太難的。黨內要是這樣的人再多一些,官僚主義等等自會逐步減少。 你近來專攻斯卡拉蒂,發見他的許多妙處,我並不奇怪。這是你喜歡亨特爾以後必然的結果。斯卡拉蒂的時代,文藝復興在繪畫與文學園地中的花朵已經開放完畢,開始轉到音樂;人的思想感情正要求在另一種藝術中發泄,要求更直接刺激感官,比較更縹緲更自由的一種藝術,就是音樂,來滿足它們的需要。所以當時的音樂作品特別有朝氣,特別清新,正如文藝復興前期繪畫中的鮑蒂徹利。而且音樂規律還不像十八世紀末葉嚴格,有才能的作家容易發揮性靈。何況歐洲的音樂傳統,在十七世紀時還非常薄弱,不像繪畫與雕塑早在古希臘就有登峰造極的造詣,雕塑在紀元前六四世紀在紀元前一世紀至紀元後一世紀。一片廣大無邊的處女地正有待于斯卡拉蒂及其以後的人去開墾。寫到這里,我想你應該常去大不列顛博物館,那兒的藝術寶藏可說一輩子也享受不盡;為了你總的(全面的)藝術修養,你也該多多到那里去學習。我因為病的時候多,只能多接觸藝術,除了原有的舊畫以外,無意中研究起碑帖來了︰現在對中國書法的變遷源流,已弄出一些眉目,對中國整個藝術史也增加了一些體會;可惜沒有精神與你細談。提到書法,忽然想起你在四月號《音樂與音樂家》雜志上的簽字式,把聰字寫成“聰”。須知末一筆不能往下拖長,因為行書草書,“一”或“...”才代表“心”字,你只能寫成“聰”或“聰”。末一筆可以流露一些筆鋒的余波,例如“聰”或“聰”,但切不可余鋒太多,變成往下拖的一只腳。望注意。小明看看免费视频发布中心 親愛的孩子,越知道你中文生疏,我越需要和你多寫中文;同時免得彌拉和我們隔膜,也要盡量寫英文。有時一些話不免在中英文信中重復,望勿誤會是我老糊涂。從你婚後,我覺得對彌拉如同對你一樣負有指導的責任︰許多有關人生和家常瑣事的經驗,你不知道還不打緊,彌拉可不能不學習,否則如何能幫助你解決問題呢?既然她自幼的遭遇不很幸福,得到父母指點的地方不見得很充分,再加西方人總有許多觀點與我們有距離,特別在人生的淡泊,起居享用的儉樸方面,我更認為應當逐漸把我們東方民族(雖然她也是東方血統,但她的東方只是徒有其名了!)的明智的傳統灌輸給她。前信問你有關她與生母的感情,務望來信告知。這是人倫至性,我們不能不關心彌拉在這方面的心情或苦悶。小明看看视频发布中心 情況等等,你不必顧慮。那是夏先生過于小心。《波蘭新聞》(波大使館每周寄我的)上把最近他們領導人物的調動及為何調動的理由都說明了。可見這不是秘密。 你以前對英國批評家的看法,太苛刻了些。好的批評家和好的演奏家一樣難得;大多數只能是平平庸庸的“職業批評家”。但寄回的評論中有幾篇的確寫得很中肯。例如五月七日ManchesterGuardian[《曼徹斯特衛報》]上署名J.H.Elliot[埃利奧特]寫的《從東方來的新的啟示》(NewLightfromtheEast)說你並非完全接受西方音樂傳統,而另有一種清新的前人所未有的觀點。又說你離開西方傳統的時候,總是以更好的東西去代替;而且即使是西方文化最嚴格的衛道者也不覺你的脫離西方傳統有什麼“乖張”“荒誕”,炫耀新奇的地方。這是真正理解到了你的特點。你能用東方人的思想感情去表達西方音樂,而仍舊能為西方最嚴格的衛道者所接受,就表示你的確對西方音樂有了一些新的貢獻。我為之很高興。且不說這也是東風壓倒西風的表現之一,並且正是中國藝術家對世界文化應盡的責任;唯有不同種族的藝術家,在不損害一種特殊藝術的完整性的條件之下,能灌輸一部分新的血液進去,世界的文化才能愈來愈豐富,愈來愈完滿,愈來愈光輝燦爛。希望你繼續往這條路上前進!還有一月二日HastingsObserver[《黑斯廷斯觀察家報》[上署名AllanBiggs[阿倫比格斯]寫的一篇評論,顯出他是衷心受了感動而寫的,全文沒有空洞的贊美,處處都著著實實指出好在哪里。看來他是一位年紀很大的人了,因為他說在一生听到的上千鋼琴家中,只有Pachmann[派克曼]?與Moiseiwitsch[莫依賽維奇]?兩個,有你那樣的魅力。Pachmann已經死了多少年了,而且他听到過“上千”鋼琴家,準是個蒼然老望了。關于你唱片的專評也寫得好。小明看看永久免费视频发布中心平台 同一雜志三月號登一篇JohnPritchard[約翰普里查德]?的介紹(你也曾與Pritchard[普里查德]合作過),有下面一小段值得你注意︰

The International Space Station (ISS) is a permanently crewed on-orbit laboratory that enables scientific research supporting innovation on Earth and future deep space exploration. From design to launch, 15 countries collaborated to assemble the world's only permanently crewed orbital facility, which can house a crew of six and 150 ongoing experiments annually across an array of disciplines. The ISS represents a global effort to expand our knowledge and improve life on Earth while testing technology that will extend our reach to the moon, Mars and beyond.

Boeing officially turned over the U.S. on-orbit segment of the ISS to NASA on March 5, 2010, and continues to provide key engineering support services and capability enhancements, as well as processing for laboratory experiment racks. Boeing’s assessments have shown it is possible to sustain the life of the station’s primary structural hardware at least through 2030.

Feature Stories

Boeing reveals prototype of Gateway lunar orbiter

Boeing reveals prototype of Gateway lunar orbiter

May 6, 2019 in Space

Boeing has unveiled its Gateway Demonstrator, a prototype of the deep-space outpost that is key to the United States’ plan to return astronauts to the moon’s surface within five years.

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Boeing-developed spacesuit material to be tested outside ISS

Boeing-developed spacesuit material to be tested outside ISS

May 3, 2019 in Space

A unique material developed by a Boeing engineer to protect spacewalkers has been launched to the International Space Station (ISS) for its most challenging test yet.

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Diversity, teamwork key to continued ISS support

Diversity, teamwork key to continued ISS support

April 8, 2019 in Space

Our International Space Station team knows how important collaboration is to provide the best ideas for the ISS. This is critical as it welcomes NASA Commercial Crew spacecraft and remain operational until 2030 and beyond.

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In the DNA

In the DNA

August 22, 2017 in Space, Technology

United Arab Emirates student’s experiment launches to the International Space Station.

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Genes in Space: 17-Year-Old Winner’s Experiment Sent to ISS

Genes in Space: 17-Year-Old Winner’s Experiment Sent to ISS

April 13, 2016 in Space

17-year-old Anna-Sophia Boguraev won the inaugural Genes in Space competition in 2015.

 

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Celebration and Reconfiguration Aboard the International Space Station

Celebration and Reconfiguration Aboard the International Space Station

November 2, 2015 in Space

A tower astronauts will use to board Boeing's Crew Space Transportation (CST)-100 Starliner is rising in the Florida skyline.

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The 220-Mile-High Lab

The 220-Mile-High Lab

July 2, 2015 in Innovation, Space

Rotating 220 miles (354 km) above Earth is the International Space Station, where Boeing provides a safe environment for more than 200 experiments.

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International Space Station

A Step Closer to Deep Space

January 15, 2015 in Innovation, Space

The 15-year milestone marks the halfway point for the projected 30-year International Space Station program.

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CST-100: Next American space capsule

CST-100: Next American space capsule

September 16, 2014 in Space

NASA awards Boeing $4.2 billion to build and fly the United States’ next passenger spacecraft, the Crew Space Transportation (CST)-100.

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Last shuttle commander virtually flies Boeing CST-100

Last shuttle commander virtually flies Boeing CST-100

February 27, 2014 in Space, Technology

Chris Ferguson, commander of the final space shuttle flight, virtually returns to space in the Boeing Crew Space Transportation (CST)-100 simulator.

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Happy Anniversary ISS

Happy Anniversary ISS

November 20, 2013 in Space

The 15-year milestone marks the halfway point for the projected 30-year International Space Station program.

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Gateway

NASA is working with its partners and suppliers to design and develop the Gateway, a moon-orbiting outpost that will serve as a base for human and robotic expeditions on the moon, and for future missions to Mars. The U.S. presidential administration’s goal of “boots on the moon” in 2024 relies on the Gateway.

Boeing’s Gateway concept builds on the company’s experience from designing, building and operating the ISS for more than 20 years. Boeing is working on a habitation module and an airlock module that doubles as additional living/work space.

Launched aboard rockets including NASA’s Space Launch System, these Gateway modules and others would connect with one another in lunar orbit using NASA’s Orion capsule or a space tug. Following astronauts’ return to the moon’s surface via a lunar lander, the Gateway will become a hub for continuing missions to the moon and Mars for NASA, its international partners, and private companies.

International Space Station Technical Specifications

Length (pressurized section) 167 ft (51 m) Operating Altitude 220 nmi (407 km) average
Total Length 192 ft (58.5 m) Inclination 51.6 degrees to the Equator
Total Height 100 ft (30.5 m) Atmosphere Inside 14.7 psi (101.36 kilopascals)
Solar Array Wingspan 239 ft (72.8 m) Pressurized Volume 34,700 cu ft (habitable volume of
14,400 cu ft)
Integrated Truss Length 357 ft (109 m) Computers to Control Station 52
Mass (Weight) 919,964 lbs Power Generation 84 kw to 120 kw (usable power)

The Nations of the International Space Station

NASA selected Boeing as prime contractor for the International Space Station on Aug. 17, 1993, and the original cost-plus-award-fee contract began on Jan. 13, 1995. Boeing is responsible for maintaining the station at peak performance levels so the full value of the unique research laboratory is available to NASA, its international partners, other U.S. government agencies and private companies.

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Quick Facts

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION:

A LAB LIKE NO OTHER

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